As we grew up, we saw how our parents raised us and how our friends were raised by their parents. Though we had no clue about parenting or parenting styles, we often wished if only our parents were as lenient as our friend’s or thanked that our parents are not as strict as the other friend’s parents and we saw the difference in behaviour and attitude between ourselves. So inevitably, parenting style does affect the behaviour and personality of a child and the same concept have always interested developmental psychologists. However, it is difficult to set a link between parental style and the future behaviour of children but in many cases, researches have indicated that a parental style does affect a child’s personality and they carry the same into adulthood in most cases.
What is a Parenting Style?
A Parental style is a psychological concept indicating the standard behaviour and strategies adopted for parenting. Parenting style differs from parent to parent and also in response to certain behaviour a child exhibits and creates a bond other than the biological one between the parent and the child. There are broadly two different attributes of a parenting style-
Beginning of ‘Parenting Style’
Psychologist Diana Baumrind performed a study on 100 preschool-aged children during the early 1960s through various research techniques to understand various dimensions of parenting. The dimensions identified were “disciplinary strategies, warmth and nurturing, communication styles, and expectations of maturity and control.” Basis these dimensions, she suggested three styles of parenting. Further studies conducted by Maccoby and Martin added one more style of parenting. Let us take a look at various styles of parenting.
Though most parents exhibit a parenting style, they often do not realise which category they fall into. Here’s a guide to understand the different parenting styles, the characteristics of parents with various parenting styles and the effect of the same on their children.
Various Parenting Styles:
Authoritative Parenting Style
A Parenting Style that focuses on balance and has been identified as one of the most effective styles of parenting.
Authoritative parents have moderate and reasonable demands and high responsiveness for children. Though Authoritative Parents have high expectations and demands from their children, they also provide their children enough resources and support to meet those demands and succeed. Such parents are good listeners and listen to their child’s needs and concerns and provide adequate love, warmth and support while adding certain limits and fair discipline.
Characteristics of an Authoritative Parent:
Effects of Authoritative Parenting Style on the child:
Permissive Parenting Style
A Permissive Parenting Style has typically low demands and high responsiveness. Such parents tend to be extremely loving and warm but provide almost no protocols or set a discipline. Their attitude of “Kids will be Kids” make them more of a friend to their children than a parental figure. They make no or few efforts to set guidelines or rules for their children while being very indulgent. Research and observation has identified that children with permissive parents often exhibit negative behaviour.
Characteristics of a Permissive Parent:
Effects of Permissive Parenting Style on the Child:
Authoritarian Parenting Style
An Authoritarian parenting style is characterized by high demands and less response. They express high expectations from their children however, are very less in nurturance and providing appropriate feedback. They exert control and authority over their children, severe verbal or corporal punishment for making mistakes and stress overly on obedience and discipline.
Characteristics of an Authoritarian Parent:
Effects of Authoritarian Parenting Style on the child:
Uninvolved Parenting Style
Uninvolved parents are also referred to as neglectful parents and have low demands and low responsiveness towards their children. There are identified as indifferent and neglectful towards the child’s needs.
Characteristics of an Uninvolved Parent:
Effects of Uninvolved Parenting Style on the Child:
Which Parenting Style is the Best?
Though parenting style has been categorized into four major styles, not all parents fall under these broad categories. Parenting style evolves and can be a mix of two or more styles of parenting. Though Authoritative Parenting Style has been recognized as the most effective one, positive or negative behaviour shown by the child in the later stage cannot be solely attributed to the parenting style. There are various other factors like student-teacher bonding at school, peer influence, financial strength and bonding in the family etcetera. A child’s innate behaviour also plays a major role on the type of parenting style one might adopt to.